EUROPEAN ART (XVII-XIX CENTURIES) FROM THE COLLECTION OF ȚĂRII CRIȘURILOR MUSEUM. DECORATIVE ARTS
The exhibits of decorative arts illustrate styles, tendencies and important artistic options in the evolution of European Art from the XIX century till the XIX century.
The morphology and semantics of ornaments develop a creative fantasy, aesthetic virtuosity but also technic. Elements such as the curve, reverse-curves, palmette, zoomorphic elements, seashells, shells, floral elements, putti, goddesses, all were experienced in decorative structures, which generated artefacts meant to embellish everyday life.
In parallel with decorative vision of semantics and Mediterranean morphology can be perceived an oriental influence. The appetite for exotic spiritual will be the one who brought in interior decoration, dragons, or other elements of fantasy specific to Far East.
Against this current it will crystallize an aesthetic attitude of a classic manner which revalue specific elements of Greco-Roman Art particularly in France, after the XIX century in the entire Europe.
All these creative attitudes will be the ones who generate later on Modern Art and Contemporary Art.
In the exhibit are presented pieces from five categories of objects of Decorative Art:
• metal objects
• wrist-watches and mantel clocks
• home porcelain
• beer cans
The watches shown in the exhibition are not only mechanisms for measuring time, but also creations of decorative art specific to XVII-XIX centuries. Baroque elements, rococo, classic and neoclassical configured the content of box watches. Clockwork mechanism, with or without pendulum is actuated by a driving force of some steel shanks.
The system was invented by Heinrich Arnold in 1460 and it was applied mostly in the USA.
In Europe it was re-evaluated and reintroduced the manufacturing watches in the year 1861 by Arthur Jungans.
To complete the utility and the gallantry show of measuring time, some watches have a mechanism of sound tamping the hours, synchronized with the measuring mechanism and some are equipped with musical mechanisms with cylinder and comb which are capturing short musical excerpts of… Mozart.
Elements of plastic decoration of watches are most of the time taken over by the furniture of that period, but in the case of mantel clocks are taken over by the sculpture of that time when they were created.
The metal objects are the ones from the category domestic use in respectable houses. Teapots, samovar, cups of coffee, trays… all of silver crafted by silversmith from famous manufactures from Europe.
Made by pouring, manual forming by hammering and pressing on spin-forming machines, assembled with mechanical linkages or by brazing (brazing with alloys of silver) these metal objects take over the baroque scenary or the neoclassic from decorative repertoire operated in the era.
The beer cans, objects for domestic use dedicated to consumption of alcohol has an own section in the production of artefacts in the Germanic area of the continent from where it has expanded in the entire Europe.
These objects of decorative art have took over some elements of decorations from the decorative repertoire of the epoques when they were realized, but also elements and expression approaches from the source countries folklore.
Home porcelain and porcelain figurines are presented in the exhibition through pitchers, plates, vases for flowers, teacups with saucers, carcasses for table watches, medium quality, figurines, trinkets. After finding the secret of Chinese porcelain, this artistic genre of production it spread in the entire Europe, manufacturing such the ones in Meissen, Sevres, Limoges, Volkstadt, Schwartz, Prague, Vienna, Zsolnay…and others.
Shaped by important artists of that period of time, made of specific procedures, most of them made high performance objects of porcelain were later on handmade decorated with different procedures by painters and well-known decorators.
Thanks to the styles and decorative tendencies from the eras they were produced, the artefacts of decorative art made everyday life more colourful and happier.
Curator of Țării Crișurilor Museum, Abrudan Cornel